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Casakin, H, & Goldschmidt, G. (1999). Expertise and the use of visual analogy: Implications for design education. Design Studies, 20:153--175.

  author = 	 {Hernan Casakin and Gabriela Goldschmidt},
  title = 	 {Expertise and the use of visual analogy:
Implications for design education},
  journal = 	 {Design Studies},
  year = 	 {1999},
  OPTvolume = 	 {20},
  OPTpages = 	 {153--175},

Author of the summary: Jim Davies, 2001, jim@jimdavies.org

The original paper can be found here in PDF form.

Cite this paper for:

Chase & Simon 1973: masters use larger and more meaningful structures in chess than do novices.

Medin & Ross 1990: experts have large qualitative knowledge bases.

Beveridge and Parkins and Novick showed that diagrams can help with problem solving.

Goldschmidt 1994, 1995: designers in the search process identify images as source analogs.

This research investigates the question: Do designers use analogy? Do novices as well as experts?

Hypothesis: If subjects are asked to use analogy and relevant displays are given, the designs produced are better. [156]

Participants did a design task with about 2 dozen pictures in front of them. Some images were from architecture, some were not. Protocols were taken [158].

Experienced architects were the judges. Their scores were reliable. Some participants paid attention to deep structures in the source analogs and solved the problem well.[162] Some noticed surface similarities and produced poorer solutions. [164]

Results of other conditions not reported here indicate that having the pictures leads to better solutions.

Asking people to use analogies helped both novices and experts. [172]

Summary author's notes:

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