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K. Hammond (1989), Case-Based
Planning: Viewing Planning as a Memory Task, chapters 2, Academic Press.
Author of the summary: Patrawadee Prasangsit, 1999, email@example.com
Cite this paper for:
CHEF: a case-based planner which can output new recipes given particular
ingredients and tastes.
Thematic Organization Packets (TOPs). The idea behind TOPs
is that, there are problems that are caused by interactions between
plans and goals. These pieces of information cannot be tied to any
individual goal. TOPs provide a means to store such information and
strategies to deal with it.
A case-based planner learns by correctly indexing its planning experiences
in memory. The main task of the learner is to figure out which features
a piece of information should be indexed under. A case-based planner
learns 1) new plans; 2) the features that predict failures; 3) past repairs
to faulty plans that it can reuse. This learning is accomplished
by saving the different results of the planner's own experiences.
CHEF is a case-based planner. Its domain is Szechwan cooking.
It task is to create new recipes given particular ingredients and tastes.
The particular problem to be solved is to produce a stir-fried dish with
beef and broccoli. Given three goals: the goal to have a stir-fried
dish, to include beef and to include broccoli, CHEF does its planning as
CHEF runs the plan in a simulation and checks the goal. One of the
goals, in particular "The broccoli is now crisp", cannot be satisfied.
It starts by searching for a best-matched plan, which results in a recipe
BEEF-WITH-GREEN-BEANS. Goals are partially satisfied.
The fact that there is a partial match between the target goal "to include
broccoli", and an object in the existing recipe, "green beans", tells the
planner that it can replace the broccoli for the green beans directly.
Object critics allow it to correctly adjust the cooking time appropriate
for broccoli and also suggest that broccoli has to be chopped before being
All of the modifications are incorporated to produce a new recipe, BEEF-AND-BROCCOLI.
In addition to the given set of goals, it derives more goals from its knowledge
of stir-frying and its understanding of what items are important in this
recipe. So it has the understanding that running this plan should
result in other six goals, in addition.
It explains the failure using a set of inference rules that tell it about
the effects of each step in its domain on each object in its domain.
These rules are used to chain through the steps and states of the plan
to answer a set of questions that will form the explanation of why the
failure has occurred.
The broccoli is instead soggy.
Not all goals are satisfied. Changing name of this bad recipe to
The explanation of the failure is used to find a structure in memory that
organizes a set of strategies for solving the problem described by the
explanation. These structures are called Thematic Organization
Packets (TOPs). The idea behind TOPs is that, there are problems
that are caused by interactions between plans and goals. These
pieces of information cannot be tied to any individual goal. TOPs
provide a means to store such information and strategies to deal with it.
It finds out that "The broccoli is soggy" is caused by thin liquid in the
pan, which is a side effect of stir-frying all the ingredients together.
Using the explanation of why a failure has occurred, CHEF builds links
that will allow it to predict the failure later in similar situations.
All the TOPs are associated with causal configurations that lead to failures
and strategies for fixing them.
In this case, the causal description is: The side effect of liquid coming
from "the stir-frying of the beef" disables a precondition of "the stir-frying
of the broccoli" that the pan being used is dry. This is used to
access the TOP SIDE-EFFECT:DISABLED-CONDITION:CONCURRENT out of the twenty
TOPs known to the program.
The mentioned TOP, which relates to the interaction between concurrent
plans in which a side effect of one violates a precondition of the other,
has three strategies associated with it: SPLIT-AND-REFORM, ALTER-PLAN:SIDE-EFFECT,
CHEF can only find one possible instantiation, a specialization of the
strategy SPLIT-AND-REFORM (which suggests breaking the parallel plans into
serial steps), so it is applied directly to the problem.
The new plan is then: Stir-fry the broccoli, remove it from the plan, stir-fry
everything else, add the broccoli, and stir-fry briefly.
It uses its understanding of past failures to anticipate problems that
will arise in new situations, as well as to find a plan that avoids it.
Using the beef-and-broccolli-recipe failure, it learns "Meat sweats when
it is stir-fried" and "Stir-frying in too much liquid makes vegetables
While planning for a stir-fried dish with chicken and snow peas, it predicts
the possibility of the snow peas getting soggy. It adds a goal to
explicitly avoid the problem. The initial set of goals thus are:
1) include chicken in the dish; 2) include snow pea in the dish; 3) make
a stir-fry dish; 4) avoid failure of type SIDE-EFFECT:DISABLED-CONDITION:CONCURRENT
exemplified by the failure "The broccoli is now soggy" in recipe BEEF-AND-BROCCOLI.
A case-based planner stores the plan itself in a plan memory. It
learns in a sense that it figures out the features that should be used
to index the plan and then store the plan in memory using them.
In storing a plan, it does not generalize the plan itself. It
instead generalizes the features that are used to index the plan in memory.
The general indices make it applicable in many situations and the specificity
of the plan makes it a powerful tool in those situations in which the match
between the desired goals and those satisfied by the plan is a good one.
CHEF stores new plans indexed by the goals they satisfy and the problems
they avoid. This is usually the case for other case-based planners
as well. It also has to be indexed by the features of a situation
that are independent of the goals but do direct the planner to one plan
or another. Ex: A plan to call the hotel front desk for a wake-up
call is only a good plan for getting up in the morning only if one is spending
the night in a hotel, not at home.
Learning to predict failures
The problem of learning to predict a failure is thus that of figuring out
which features of an existing situation have caused the failure.
When a failure occurs, the planner records a link between features of goals
and the failure that they have caused. These memories of failures
can be used when the goals arise again. They give the planner the
warning that it should find a plan that avoids the problem.
A case-based planner uses the explanation of a failure to identify the
features that will predict it. It generalizes these features to the
highest level of description allowed by the rules in the explanation.
Ex: Generalize from "beef" to "meat", "broccoli" to "vegetables".
When multiple features are required to predict a failure, all of them
are linked to the memory of the failure. This memory is not activated
unless all of the linked features are present.
In tracing back through the explanation of a failure to the initial
causes, a planner passes through states that those original causes have
created. Though these states are the ones that are the more proximate
causes of the problems but not the first causes, they can also be used
to predict the problems in the future.
Aside from storing plans and failures, a case-based planner also stores
some of the repairs in the form of critics, indexed by the problems that
they solve. These repairs are used when a planner predicts a problem,
but cannot find a plan of the proper type to deal with that problem.
When this occurs, it has to use a plan that it knows to be faulty and then
change it with the same patch it used to repair another faulty plan in
Not all the repairs can be saved. Some failures are the product
of multiple ingredients interacting so no one ingredient alone can be blamed
and no one ingredient be given a critic that will repair. Some repairs
are too complex to transfer to a new problem and therefore are hardly worth
The critic is the actual repair that was built by the strategy to patch
the plan. The explanation that is used to repair the plan in the
first place identifies where the critics should be stored.
How learning from planning is different
Learning for a case-based planner is a by-product of planning. Planning
is a test of the planner's knowledge. When that knowledge fails,
the planner can see through its own experience that it needs to learn some
new way to discriminate between the situation it thought it was in and
the one it is actually in. In the case-based planning sense, learning
means storing the different results of the planner's activity indexed by
the features that determine their usefulness.
How learning from planning is better
Learning from planning is an improvement over other types of learning in
that it uses the knowledge of the planner to determine what to learn, how
to index it, and when to learn it at all. All of the improvements
come from the basic idea that learning is not separate from planning.
Learning is the management of the planner's memory of its own experience
so that it can plan more effectively and avoid the problems that it has
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Last modified: June 14, 1999