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Miles, H. L. (1983) Apes and language: The search for communicative competence. In Language in Primates: Perspectives and Implications, J. De Luce & H. T. Wilder (eds.). Springer-Verlag, New York. pp 43-61.

Author of the summary: Jim Davies, 1998, jim@jimdavies.org

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p44: There has been a criticism that apes are not signing at all, but are merely responding with motions to trainer cues. There are several reasons not to believe this is happening. You shouldn't worry about whether apes can use language as a black and white issue. There are some things they can do, and some things they can't, and this is where the interesting reserach lies.

p47. "Chantek" is Malaysian for "beautiful."

p 53 Chantek's long utterances have not been checked for grammar.

p56 Even When the care giver did nothing, Chantek made a sign every 27 seconds.

problems with the Nim Chimpsky project (which argues against ape language use):

p59: The failure of Nim should is a failure of one training method, not the failure of apes in general.

Summary author's notes:

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